What on earth is the Communism?
Karl Marx, influenced by the Hegelian Dialectics and Feuerbach’s Materialism, predicts that the social institution will evolve from the Primitive Communism, with a series of upheavals, to Slavery, Feudalism, Capitalism and eventually the Advanced Communism, where all property and government institutions disappear. Since there are many intermediate and seemingly unstable stages that exist in order to realize the Advanced Communism, is the Advanced Communism eventually the final stage as what Marx has claimed, or just another intermediate stage, or a recursive stage back to the Capitalism?
If the Communism is the final stage of the evolvement of social institutions, then Marx has the accountability to explain why this stage is more stable than the previous stages and why it could not be another intermediate stage towards future evolvement. However, he only offers a panorama of what the Advanced Communism would be, but was not able to provide convincing reasoning or empirical evidence to support his conjecture. He imagines that after the achievement of the Advanced Communism, the idea of class vanishes, and so does the struggle between different classes. Therefore, the group of people who were previously in the higher class of the social hierarchy cannot use those previously in the lower class as “exploited machines,” and the complexity of industrial processes fades away, and under this condition, the division of labor disappears. Without the division of labor, people can engage in the professions that they are most interested in. As far as Marx has concerned, with the interest in what they are working on, people will probably enhance the working efficiency and gain more leisure time and thus more happiness.
But, what are the incentives of those in the higher hierarchy to share profits or privileges with those in the lower class? Or, if capitalists in terms of those in the higher class have left more than the least means of production for those in the lower class to survive and even to entertain themselves, what are the incentives of those in the lower hierarchy to initiate the revolution? I could hardly solicit any support from reliable sources to answer the two questions above. Therefore, from my perspective, if the Advanced Communism has ever existed, then it is just a recursive stage back to the Capitalism, although the appearance of which may have been altered to some extent by the eradication of some major flaws.